EDUCATIONAL, DIAGNOSTIC AND CONSULTING SERVICES

ERRORS ARE THE KEYS TO:
STRENGTHS-------DIAGNOSIS-----INSTRUCTION-----INTERVENTIONS
STRENGTHS

MATH EXAMPLE
child 1

9-5=3 (knows meaning of subtraction)  vs   9-5 = 14 (knows facts but not the meaning of operations)


READING/SPELLING EXAMPLE
child 2

reading sight as s-i-guh-hit knows
( phonics but not orthography, in this case rime) vs
reading sight as stig (fails to maintain phonological structure)

spelling floor as florr (perceives phonological structure but lacks knowledge of orthography) vs
floor as fulooer (fails to overlap consonant and vowel sounds - using "fuh" for the sound of f...)


READING COMPREHENSION EXAMPLE
child 3

failing the multiple choice test but giving a good summary possibly due to:
complexity of language or information load within the questions
insight or sensitivity to subtlety creating dissatisfaction with an overly simplified or narrow correct answer


INSTRUCTION

child 1
use manipulatives, draw pictures, use number line to take advantage of the child's conceptual knowledge to achieve a correct answer; use the same hands on materials repeatedly to practice facts


child 2
use rime to avoid overly literal approach to reading and spelling:  sight read as rime first, then onset:  ight then  sight
use color coding as above
use spelling-to-reading to access the student's competence with analyzing the phoneme level sounds in a word



child 3
allow the student to tell a summary rather than the choices given in the multiple choice options
further assess difficulties with language or information complexity



IMPLICATIONS FOR DIAGNOSIS

child 1
no disability suggested, possible high ability or gift in math
possible resistance to memorizing without understanding,
a preference for understanding rather than following prescribed steps
however:
possible mismatch with instruction
can be confused as ADHD or working memory deficit

child 2
no core phonological disorder
however:
could have a reading disability/dyslexia, including spelling problems, if phonology (sounds in word) and orthography (letter patterns that designate sounds) connections continue to be disrupted by an overly phonetic approach
intervention is indicated emphasizing rime patterns (kit vs kite) and integrated orthographic units (ight vs i-g-h-t)

child 3
reading comprehension is adequate at least at the level assessed
however:
evaluation of competence with linguistic complexity indicated
evaluation of capacity for extended amounts of information and language




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